SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS
VOLUME 78, NUMBER 8
THE FLORA OF BARRO COLORADO
PAUL C. STANDLEY
' CITY OF WASHINGTON
\o. 8f PLIBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
MAY 20, 1927
SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS
VOLUME 78, NUMBER 8
THE FLORA OF BARRO COLORADO
PAUL C, STANDLEY
CITY OF WASHINGTON
PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
MAY 20, 1927
BALTIMOEE, MD., 0. S. A.
THE FLORA OF P.ARRO COFORADO LSFAXD, PANAMA
Bv PAUL C. STANDLEY
The logical position of the Republic of Panama as a center for edu-
cational work has been recognized throughout the American countries
ever since work was begun upon the Panama Canal. It is therefore
particularly appropriate that there should be established here in the
Canal Zone a laboratory for tropical research in the biological sciences.
On April 17, 1923, Barro Colorado Island, in Gatiin Lake, was set
aside by the Governor of the Canal Zone as a permanent reservation,
to preserve in a primitive state the animal and plant life of the region.
This result was accomplished largely through the personal interest
and effort of Dr. Thomas Barbour and Mr. James Zetek, the latter
now resident custodian of the island.
Through the persevering effort of these two persons, also, there has
been constructed upon the island a commodious and substantial labora-
tory with ample living quarters, in which one may enjoy every bodily
comfort while carrying on investigations of the highly diversified
fauna and f^ora. Although secluded from the distractions of such
towns as Colon and Panama, one is within easy reach of their con-
veniences. From the windows of the laboratory, situated at the top
of a high, steep slope, one may see all day long an ever-changing pro-
cession of the world's ships, passing almost before the door.
The laboratory is operated by the Institute for Tropical Research,
under the direction of the National Research Council, and a cordial
welcome is extended to scientists who wish to make serious use of its
facilities. The expenses of administration are borne in part by sub-
scriptions of scientific and educational institutions, and in part by
Barro Colorado, the largest island of Gatun Lake, covers approxi-
mately six square miles, being about three miles in greatest length
and width. It is of artificial origin, and before the water was turned
into the lake formed merely a part of the hills along the Chagres River.
Near the laboratory site ran one of the cuts of the old French canal,
and close at hand was the town of Bohio, now submerged.
The island consists of a mass of hills, steep in places, broken by
ravines through which run a few small clear streams. Since the low
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 78, No. 8
2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78
land along the Chagres was submerged when the lake was filled, there
is little swampy land on the island, although about the upper end
there is a small amount of aquatic and semi-aquatic vegetation. The
shore line, nearly 25 miles long, is very irregular, with innumerable
indentations, in some of which are still standing the gray trunks of
trees killed when the lower slopes of the hills were inundated. The
highest part of the island is 537 feet above sea level, and 450 feet
above the main level of Gatun Lake.
Along its north side the island is separated from the mainland by a
narrow channel, formed by a diversion canal of the old French days.
Toward the south lies the main expanse of Gatun Lake, traversed by
the Canal, and oii the distant shore is Frijoles, a station of the railroad
which crosses the Isthmus from Colon to Panama.
Most of Barro Colorado Island is covered with dense forest and
jungle. In a few places there are patches of comparatively level,
deforested land, the sites of recently cultivated clearings now aban-
doned and overgrown with coarse weeds and second-growth shrubs.
Within a few years these fields will be invaded by trees.
It is probably true that little of the island is covered with really
virgin forest, but the woods have been so long undisturbed that one
will hardly recognize the fact. The large number of palms and tree
ferns indicates that some of the slopes and ravines have never been
wholly cleared, these being plants which disappear when the forest is
opened and probably never reestablish themselves. In a region such
as the Canal Zone, for over 400 years under European influence and
during all this time an important trade route, it is difficult to prove
that a given tract of land has not been cleared or put under cultivation
at some time during these centuries, of whose detailed history we
know so little.
At any rate, the present plant covering of Barro Colorado has every
aspect of the typical virgin forest occupying the humid lowlands of
Central America, and is so rank and dense that in order to penetrate
it a way must be cut with a machete. Many of the trees tower to a
vast height, and have massive trunks swathed in a mantle of epiphytic
vegetation that is still to be studied. Ropelike vines or lianas dangle
from the crowns of the tallest trees, whose branches are loaded with
aroids, bromeliads, orchids, and other epiphytes.
Palms are unusually abundant, and many of the 22 genera known
from the Canal Zone exist here. Ferns, particularly handsome tree
ferns of the genus HcinitcUa, are plentiful, although in Central
America most species of ferns must be sought at much higher eleva-
NO. 8 FLORA OF J]ARK(J fOLCJKADO iSLAND STANDLFY 3
tioiis. Species of Piper are numerous, also Araceae, Rubiaceae. and
iWgnoniaceae, and most of the important groups of lowland Central
American plants are represented. Thus f;ir the cry])to<>amic plants
have been little studied, but there must be a wealth of fungi. The
lichens, hepatics, and mosses of the tropics are not highly diversified
at so low an altitude.
The ])resent list of the ])lants known from Barro Colorado Island
is based chiefly iipon j^ersonal collections and notes. I visited the
island first on January 17, 1924, and collected that day about 300
numbers of plants. Collecting was then difficult, because there was
only a single, inadequate trail ; but now trails have been opened upon
every hand, and may be extended easily, so there is little limit to one's
range of activity.
During November, 1925, I spent a week upon the island as the
guest of the lalioratory. About 500 specimens of plants were taken,
chiefly of the rarer and more interesting species, and notes were made
of all the common plants observed. Trips were made each day in
some new direction, hence it is believed that the list here offered is
fairly representative of the flora. No one familiar with tropical con-
ditions would venture to say that it is nearly complete, for by the
very nature of its vegetation, such an area, with its many local or
infrequent species, it is almost impossible to exhaust. Probably the
next botanist who visits the island will be puzzled by the omission
from this list of some plant which to him appears one of the common
November did not seem to be an especially favorable period for
collecting, and few plants were found in flower. Probably the begin-
ning of the rainy season, in spring, would be the best time for botaniz-
ing, although even then one must have good luck to find in proper
condition some of the trees and shrubs that flower for only a brief
season. The trees are difficult to study, since usually one must guess
at their identity from their lofty branches as viewed from the ground,
or sort the l)its of leaves and flowers strewn upon the soil. There
must be several species of trees on Barro Colorado that are not enu-
merated here, and more than a few shrubs and herbs.
No botanist can fail to be interested by the tropical vegetation so
luxuriantly displayed here, and it is to be hoped that many botanical
workers will take advantage of the opportunity oft'ered for studying
a characteristic area of tropical vegetation, at slight expense. This
is an excellent place for making one's first acquaintance with tropical
American plants, for no local flora of tropical America is better
4 SMITHSONIAN MlSCliLLAN liOUS COLLECTIONS \0L. 78
known, and its variety is equal to that of most localities of similar
For a study of the ecology of a typical area of lowland tropical
vegetation, Barro Colorado offers exceptional advantages, and the
morphology of certain groups of plants could be investigated profit-
ably. Few indeed are the Central American localities in which it is
possible to find comfortable lodging with the jungle but a few steps
from the door. A large number of zoologists have visited Barro Colo-
rado Island, some of them remaining several weeks or months to
carry on their studies, and the list of published papers based upon
work performed here forms an extensive bibliography.
The botanist also will be interested in the wealth of animal life
that may be observed. Freedom from molestation has made the mam-
mals and birds tame, and it is possible to see many kinds that else-
where are timid and seldom visible. Flocks of chattering parrots and
parrakeets fly all day long over the trees, and literally hundreds of
other birds may be seen about the forest. Peccaries may be encoun-
tered along any trail, and sitting in the evening on the steps of the
laboratory, one may watch the monkeys going to their sleeping places.
Deer are found in the forest, and jaguars have been seen from the
laboratory. In the mud the tracks of tapirs, the largest Central Ameri-
can mammal, are found now and then, and one is likely to meet upon
the trail other smaller but interesting animals. Insects are not more
plentiful than elsewhere, and I do not remember to have been troubled
by anything more disagreeable than ants, the worst pests of tropical
forests. Snakes exist here, some of them venomous, but they need
occasion only a fair amount of caution. I happened to see none upon
This list is little more than an enumeration of the names of the
sjjecies of plants now known to occur on Barro Colorado Island. 1
hope that at some time it may be practicable to prepare a descri]:)tive
flora of the island, but it is better to leave such a work until the list is
more nearly complete. In the near future there will be published, as
volume 27 of the Contributions from the National Herbarium, an
account of the plants of the Canal Zone, with keys for their deter-
mination, and it is felt that to publish here keys to the species would
be an unnecessary repetition.
Besides my own collections, I have had access to a few others made
on the island : those of Dr. William R. Maxon, who collected here
June 6, 1923 ; of Prof. F. L. Stevens, of the University of Illinois,
who visited the island in September, 1924 ; and of Prof. C. W. Dodge,
NO. 8 FLORA OF BARRO fOr.ORAnO ISLAND STANDLRY 5
of Harvard University, who was enq-a^ed in study of the fungi during
the summer of 1925, and has furnished a list of the flowering plants
he collected at that time. Among the other botanists who have visited
the island are Dr. A. S. Hitchcock and Mr. O. F. Cook, of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture, and Prof. G. R. liisby, of Manitoba
In addition to the species listed there are still on hand some sterile
specimens which it has been impossible to identify. Most of these
represent additions to the flora of Panama and probably to that of
North America. Some of them doubtless will prove of great inter-
est, but their recognition must await the collection of more complete
material or a fortunate association with named specimens from other
The Spanish vernacular names given for the species here listed
are those used in Panama, and many of them were verified upon the
island. Well established English names have been cited when available.
In the present paper there are li.sted for Barro Colorado Island
61 1 species of plants. Of these at least 3S species are introduced.
The list of fungi is based partly upon specimens collected by myself and
identified by Dr. J. R. Weir of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. There
are included also numerous records supplied by Prof. F. L. Stevens and Prof.
G. R. Bisby.
Arcyria cinerea Pers.
Auricularia mesenterica Bull. This, like most of the fleshy and woody fungi
growing upon logs and tree trunks, is called in Panama as well as elsewhere
in Central America "orejas" or "orejitas."
Bagnisiopsis peiibebuyensis (Speg.) Theiss. & Syd. On Miroiiia arijcntca.
Camillea cyclops Mont.
Camillea Sagraeana (Mont.) B. & C.
Cookeina sulcipes (Berk.) Kuntze.
Cookeina tricholoma (Mont.) Kuntze.
Fomes Auberianus Mont.
Fomes ferreus Berk.
Fomes marmoratus Berk.
Gloeoporus conchoides Mont.
Hexagonia tenuis (Hook.) Vw
Hexagonia variegata Berk.
Hirneola delicata (Fr.) Bres.
Hirneola polytricha Mont.
Hymenochaete damaecornis Link & Lev.
Irenina Shropshiriana Stevens, sp. nov. On Miconia argentca.
Laschia auriscalpium Mont.
Laschia pezizoidea Berk.
Lentinus strigellus Berk.
Lentinus velutirius Fr.
Meliola Heliconiae Stevens, sp. nov. On Ilclicouia sp.
Meliola Musae (Kunze) Mont. On HcUconia sp.
Meliola palmicola Winter.
Meliola Panici Earle. On Olyra latifolia.
Meliola peruviana irregulaiis Stevens, var. nov. On Bignoniaceae indet.
Meliola Pilocarpi Stevens. On Zantho.xylum ( ?)
Polyporus brachypus Lev.
Polyporus gracilis Kl.
Polyporus infernalis Berk.
Polyporus licnoides Mont.
Polyporus lignosus Kl.
Polyporus subelegans Murr.
Polyporus virgatus B. & C.
Polystictus arenicOlor Berk.
Polystictus crocatus Fr.
Polystictus occidentalis (Kl.) Fr.
Polystictus sanguineus (L.) Fr.
XO. 8 FI.dRA OF I'.ARRO C(M.( IKADO ISLAND STANDLF.V 'J
Polystictus Steinheilianus Berk. & Lev. " Really a thin form of Travietes
rigidci Berk. & I\Iont."
Polystictus versatilis Berk.
Polystictus versicolor (Dicks.) J-V.
Poria vincta (I'crk.) Cko.
Schizophyllum commune (L.) Fr.
Stereum flabellatum Pat.
Stereum glabrescens Berk. ?
Stereum papyrinum Mont.
Thelephora pusiola Pat. ?
Trametes caperatus Berk.
Trametes cubensis Mont.
Trametes hydnoides (Sw.) Fr.
Trametes rigida Berk. & Mont.
Xylaria axifera Mont.
Xylaria cubensis Mont.
The records of the following rusts have been supplied by Prof. H. S. Jackson,
of Purdue University. The specimens were collected by Prof. F. L. Stevens.
Puccinia Emiliae P. Henn. On Nciirolaena lobata (L.) R. Br.
Uredo Dioscoreae P. Henn. On Dioscorea tirophylla Hemsl.
Tlie following species has been determined by Mr. G. K. Merrill. The nuni-
ber of lichens occurring on Barro Colorado is not large, but there are other
species besides the one listed.
Leptogium azureum (Swartz) Mont.
The following mosses have been determined by Mr. Edwin B. Bartram :
Bryum coronatum Schwaegr.
Crossomitrium Wallisi C. M.
Lepodipilum polytrichioides (Hedw.) Brid.
Neckeropsis disticha (Hedw.) Fleiscli.
Octoblepharum albidum (L.) Hedw.
Pilotrichum ramosissimum IMitt.
Taxithelium planum (Brid.) Mitt.
Thuidium schistocalyx (C. M.) Mitt.
SCHIZAEACEAE. Curlygrass Family'
Lygodium polymorphum (Cav.) H. B. K. A slender vine, very hairy, in
Lygodium radiatum Prantl.
CYATHEACEAE. Tree Fern Family
Hemit«lia petiolata Hook. Frequent ; a very handsome plant, the only
tree fern known to occur on the island.
'An annotated list of the ferns and fern allies of Barro Colorado has
been published recently by the writer in the American Fern Journal 16: 112-120;
17: 1-8. 1927. The identifications are l)y Dr. William R. Maxon.
8 SMIIHSONIAN MTSCELLANFXJUS COLLKCTIONS VOL. /O
MARATTIACEAE. Marattia Family
Danaea nodosa (L.) J. E. Sm. Frequent in the forest.
POLYPODIACEAE. Polypody Family
Acrostichum sp. A species of this genus grows in shallow "water about the
edge of the lake, but specimens have not been collected. It is either A. auretim
L.or A. daneaefoliiim Langsd. & Fisch., both of which are common in the region.
Adiantum lucidum Swartz. Common in the forest.
Adiantum philippense L. Infrequent.
Adiantum sp. (Stajuilcy 31330). An unidentified and perhaps undescribed
Ananthacorus angustifolius (Swartz) Underw. & Maxon. An epiphytic plant.
Anetium citrifolium (L.) Splitg. Epiphytic,
Asplenium serratum L. Epiphytic. The American birds-nest fern.
Cyclopeltis semicordata (Swartz) J. Sm. Abundant.
Dictyoxiphium panamense Hook.
Diplazium delitescens Maxon. Abundant.
Diplazium grandifoaum Swartz.
Dryopteris dentata (Forsk.) C. Chr.
Dryopteris Poiteana (Bory) Urban. Frequent in the forest.
Elaphoglossum Herminieri (Bory & Fee) Moore. Epiphytic.
Eschatogramme furcata (L.) Trev. Epiphytic.
Leptochilus cladorrhizans (Spreng.) Maxon. Common.
Nephrolepis pendula (Raddi) J. Sm. Epiphytic.
Pityrogramma calomelaena (L.) Link. In open places.
Polybotrya caudata Kunze. A creeping and climbing epiphyte.
Polybotrya osmundacea Humb. & Bonpl. A large clim1)ing epiphyte.
Polypodium ciliatum Willd. Epiphytic.
Polypodium crassifoUum L. A coarse epiphyte.
Polypodium occultum Christ. Epiphytic.
Polypodium pectinatum L., form. An epiphyte.
Polypodium percussum Cav. Epiphytic.
Saccoloma elegans Kaulf. A common handsome terrestrial plant.
Stenochlaena vestita (Fourn.) Underw. A large creeping epiphyte.
Tectaria euryloba (Christ) Maxon.
Tectaria martinicensis (Spreng.) Copel. Common in the forest.
Vittaria lineata (L.) J. E. Smi. A common epiphyte, with grasslike leaves.
HYMENOPHYLLACEAE. Filmy-fern Family
Trichomanes Godmani Hook. Epiphytic, like tlie other local species of the
Trichomanes Krausii Hook. & Grev.
Trichomanes sphenoides Kunze.
SALVINIACEAE. Salvinia Family
Salvinia auriculata Aubl. Floating in quiet water.
NO. 8 FLORA OF liARRO COLORADO ISLAND STANDLIA C)
LYCOPODIACEAE. Clubmoss Family
Lycopodium ceriiuum L. Reported by Prof. C. W. Dodge.
SELAGINELLACEAE. Selaginella Family
Selaginella conduplicata Sprcns. Common in the forest.
Selaginella Fendleri I'akcr.
Selaginella haematodes (Kuiuc) Spring. Common; easily recognized by its
dark red stems.
Selaginella Schrammii Hicron.
Selaginella sylvatica Baker.
TYPHACEAE. Cattail Family
Typha angustifolia L. Cattail. In shallow water at the edge of the lake.
POACEAE. Grass Family
The identifications in this family have liecn made by Dr. A. S. Hitchcock and
Mrs. Agnes Chase.
Andropogon condensatus H. B. K. In clearing; scarce.
Arthrostylidium racemiflonim Steud. A common slender bamboo.
Axonopus compressus (Swartz) Beauv. Carpet grass. Common.
Cenchrus viridis Spreng. Sandbur. In open places.
Chloris radiata (L.) Swartz. In clearings; rare.
Chusquea simpliciflora Munro. A slender bamboo, common in the forest.
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bermuda grass. In open places; introduced.
Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Cr.\bgrass.
Eleusine indica (L.) Gacrtn. In open places.
Gynerium sagittatum (Aul)l.) Beauv. Cane. A tall coarse grass, in wet
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees. In shallow water.
Ichnanthus nemorosus Doell. Common.
Ichnanthus pallens (Swartz) Munro. Common.
Ischaemum rugosum Salisb. In clearings.
Lasiacis sorghoidea (Desv.) Hitchc. & Chase. A common coarse vine.
Olyra latifolia L. Common in forest.
Oplismenus Burmanni (Retz.) Beauv. Very common.
Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv. Common.
Orthoclada laxa (Rich.) Beauv. In forest.
Oryza sativa L. Rice. Arroz. Upland rice has been planted on the island.
Panicum pilosum Swartz. In clearing.
Panicum trichoides Swartz. Common.
Paspalum conjugatum Berg. Common.
Paspalum paniculatum L. In clearing.
Pharus glaber IT. B. K. Frequent in forest.
Pharus latifolius L. Frequent.
Polytrias amaurea (Biise) Kuntze. Well establislicd in the lawn at the
lO SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78
Saccharum officinarum L. Sugar cane. Cana. Planted at the laboratory,
and about the old clearings.
Setaria geniculata (Lam.) Beauv. Common in open places.
Setaria vulpiseta (Lam.) Roem. & Schult. In a clearing; rare.
Streptochaeta Sodiroana Hack. In the forest.
Streptogyne crinita Beauv. In the forest ; occasional.
Zea mays L. Maize. Maiz. Planted at the laboratory.
CYPERACEAE. Sedge Family
Cyperus caracasanus Kimth. Junco. In open places.
Cyperus ferax Rich. Junco. Occasional in clearings.
Cyperus giganteus \'ahl. A giant plant in water at the edge of the lake;
in habit resembling the African papyrus.
Dichromena radicans Schlecht. & Cham. Clavo. In open places.
Fimbristylis diphylla (Retz.) Vahl. In clearings.
Fuirena umbellata Rottb. In shallow water at the edge of the lake.
Kyllinga pumila Michx. In open places.
Mariscus jamaicensis (Crantz) Britton. Sawgrass. Common in shallow
water at the edge of the lake.
Rynchospora cephalotes (L.) Vahl. Paja macho de monte (" tapir grass ").
In open places.
Scleria bracteata Cav. Cortadera, Cuchillito. The Spanish name alludes
to the fact that the sharp edges of the leaves cut the skin like a knife.
Scleria melaleuca Schlecht. & Cham.
PHOENICACEAE. Palm Family
Other palms than those listed probably occur here.
Acanthorrhiza Warscewiczii Wendl. Noli, Palma de escoba. Scarce. The
only fan palm of the region. The leaves are used for brooms and for thatching.
Asterogyne sp. (Gconoma nincata Wendl.?) Rabo ahorcado. A nearly stem-
less, small plant, the mostly simple leaves deeply lobed at the apex ; flowers
in simple spikes.
Astrocaryum polystachyum Wendl. A tall plant with spiny trunk.
Bactris sp. (Subgenus Trichobactris.) A slender, very spiny palm, in forest;
Calyptrogyne sp. A small plant, stemless or with a short trunk ; leaves
with numerous narrow segments ; flowers in simple spikes.
Chamaedorea Wendlandiana (Oerst.) Hemsl. Cana verde, Bola. A slender
graceful palm with smooth green stems.
Cocos nucifera L. Coconut. Coco. A few trees about the sites of former
houses ; introduced.
Geonoma sp. Probably two species grow here. Slender plants with pinnate
leaves, unarmed stems, and branched inflorescences.
Iriartea exorrhiza Mart. Stilt palm. Jira. A tall palm with slender smooth
green trunk, the trunk supported by stout prop roots, which are covered with
very short spines.
Pyrenoglyphis major (Jacq.) Karst. Lata, Palma brava. A very spiny
plant, similar to Bactris, but with much larger fruits.
Synechanthus Warscewiczianus Wendl. Palmilla, Bola. A slender palm,
similar in appearance to CJwmacdorca.
NO. 8 FLORA OF P.ARRO COLORADO ISLAND STANDLFY II
CYCLANTHACEAE. Cyclanthus Family
Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pav. Panama hat palm. Portokrico, Jipijapa,
Rampira, Iraca. a stemless plant witli nuincrous long-stalked leaves, the blades
cleft so as to rescnil)le a Maltese cross. It is from the young leaves of this
plant that the famous " Panama " hats are made, in Ecuador.
Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. Portorrico. A stemless plant, the leaves cleft
into two hroad divisions. Easily recognized by the fruit, which resembles a
ARACEAE. Arum Family
Plants of this family are particularly almndant on Rarro Colorado. The
epiphytic species constitute a large part of the vegetation seen upon tree trunks.
Anopsias Moritzianus Schott.
Anthurium aemulum Schott. A large epiphytic vine with parted leaves.
Anthurium Friedrichsthalii Schott. A small acaulescent epiphyte with linear
Anthurium Holtonianum Schott. A very showy species, a large vine with
huge leaves, digitately parted into several broad segments.
Anthurium maximum (Desf.) Engler. An acaulescent epiphyte, with large
broad simple leaves.
Anthurium Schlechtendalii Kunth. An acaulescent epiphyte.
Anthurium scolopendrinum (Ham.) Kunth. Acaulescent, with narrow entire
Anthurium triangulum Engler. Leaves sagittate.
Dieffenbachia Oerstedii Schott. 0x6 de lagarto. Called " dumb-cane "
by the West Indians. A coarse terrestrial herb with erect stems and broad
leaves. The crushed plant has a skunklike odor. The juice is very irritant
in contact with the skin, and care must be exercised, in handling the plant.
Monstera dilacerata Koch. A large and handsome epiphytic vine with
deeply pinnatifid, broad leaves.
Monstera pertusa (L.) de Vriese. A coarse vine, recognized at once by the
broad leaves perforated with mnnerous large holes.
Philodendron coerulescens Engler. Epiphytic vine with ovate entire leaves.
Philodendron grandipes Krause. An acaulescent terrestrial plant with rounded-
cordate leaves ; very common.
Philodendron Karstenianum Schott. An epiphyte with oblong leaves.
Philodendron radiatum Schott. Azota cabeza, Chalde. A large handsome
vine, tlie leaves deeply pinnatifid into narrow segments ; very common.
Philodendron rigidifolium Krause. Cinchadora. Epiphyte with broad ovate
Philodendron tripartitum (Jacq.) Schott. A common vine, recognized readily
by the leaves, which are parted into 3 oblong entire segments.
Philodendron Wendlandii Schott. Epiphytic vine with oblong leaves, cordate
Pistia stratiotes L. Water-lettuce. Floating in quiet water. Very unlike
the other members of the family, the plant consisting of a rosette of spongy,
broadly wedge-shaped, pale green leaves.
Spathiphyllum Patini (Hogg) N. E. Brown. Acaulescent terrestrial plant.
Stenospermation sessile Engler. Large epiphytic vine with lance-oblong leaves.
SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS \0L. 78
Xanthosoma helleborifolium (Jacq.) Schott. Papayuelo. Terrestrial plant
with a single leaf, this parted into 5 to 13 lobed segments ; petiole handsomely
blotched with brown.
Xanthosoma violaceum Schott. Oto. Called " I)adu "' and " coco " by the
West Indians. Planted at the laboratory; cultivated commonly in the lowlands
of tropical America for its tuberous roots, which are cooked and eaten much
like potatoes. The plant resemibles the caladium or elephant-ear cultivated for
LEMNACEAE. Duckweed Family
Lemna cyclostasa (I'.ll.) Cliev. Uickwef.d. Mr. Zctck re])orts that he lias seen
a plant of this family in quiet water about the island. The species listed is
the only member of the family known at present from the Canal Zone, but it
is possible that others occur here.
BROMELIACEAE. Pineapple Family
Ananas magdalenae (Andre) Standi. Pita, Pinuela. Called " pingwing "
by the West Indians. Common in forests. Similar in habit to the pineapple,
the red flowers forming a large hard globose head: The long, very spiny
leaves furnish one of the best fibers known, the " pita iloja." The plants often
form dense thickets which are almost impenetrable.
Ananas sativus Schnlt. Pineapple. Pin a. Planted at the laboratory.
Billbergia pallidiflora Liebm. An epiphyte with pendent flower spikes, the
few long leaves spiny-margined and handsomely blotched with silver.
Catopsis tenella Mez. A small epiphyte with dioecious flowers and broad,
thin, l)right green leaves.
Guzmania minor Mez. An epiphyte withi broad, bright green, thin leaves, the
inflorescence short and dense, with showy, red or purple bracts.
Tillandsia bulbosa Hook. An epiphyte with a hard, dark, bulblike base.
Tillandsia digitata Mez. An epiphyte with a cluster of many gray leaves.
COMMELINACEAE. Dayflower Family
Campelia zanonia (L.) H. ]>. K. An erect herb about a meter high, with
conspicuous, dark blue, juicy fruit.
Commelina elegans H. B. K. Dayflower. Codillo. A fleshy procumbent
herb with bright blue flowers, resembling the Wandering Jew of gardens.
Dichorisandra hexandra (Aubl.) Standi. An erect branched herb, about a
meter high, with small blue flowers.
Tradescantia geniculata Jacq. An inconspicuous, procumbent, very hairy
herb with small white flowers.
PONTEDERIACEAE. Pickerelweed Family
Piaropus azurea (Swartz) Raf. Water-hyacinth. I have no record of having
seen this plant on Barro Colorado, Init it certainly must occur somewhere
about the shores, since it is frequent in Gatun Lake. If left to itself it would
overgrow the lake, Init efforts have been made to exterminate the plant, hence
it is not abundant anywhere.
NO. 8 jn.ORA 0\- llARRO Cni.f )R.\1H) ISLAND STANDLr':Y I3
LILIACEAE. Lily Family
Taetsia fruticosa (L.) Merrill, riantcd at the laboratory. One of the so-
called Dracaenas ; much planted for ornament in Panama. A tall plant with
green or more commonly red or purple leaves.
SMILACACEAE. Sarsaparilla Family
Smilax mollis W'illd. A common small vyie with ])ul)escent foliage.
Smilax panamensis Morong. GkEKNiikiKU. Zau/.a. A common large vine
w ilh very prickly stems and glabrous foliage.
HAEMODORACEAE. Bloodwort Family
Xiphidium caeruleum Aubl. P.xlmita. Common in the forest. An herb,
marked by its fleshy, vertically 2'-ranked leaves, suggesting those of an iris ;
flowers small and whitish, the fruit a small red berry.
AMARYLLIDACEAE. Amaryllis Family
Hymenocallis americana (L.) Salisb. Spidicrlilv. Called " euchar lily" by
the West Indians. I found it in the forest on one of the hills of the island,
at the site of a former dwelling. It is normally a seashore plant, but is often
grown for ornament because of its handsome white flowers.
DIOSCOREACEAE. Yam Family
Dioscorea alata L. Yam. Name. The common yam, planted at the laboratory.
Dioscorea urophylla Uline. Bejuco de .saina. A native species, growing in the
IRIDACEAE. Iris Family
Marica gracilis Herb. An inconspicuous herl) with narrow leaves, occasional
in the wet forest.
MUSACEAE. Banana Family
Heliconia acuminata Ricli. A small herbaceous plant with small leaves;
inflorescence erect, with deep red !)racts. The Heliconias are known in Panama
as " platanillo," or sometimes as " lengua de vaca." They are conspicuous plants
in the forests and in swamps. The bracts hold water in which mosquitoes
Heliconia latispatha I!enth. Platanillo, Guacamaya. Similar to the last
species, but much larger ; inflorescence erect, the bracts red, tinged with yellow
Heliconia Mariae Hook. Beefsteak Heliconia. Platanillo. Called by the
West Indians " wild plantain " or " wild banana." The largest and most showy
species of the region, often forming dense thickets, the plants several meters
high, with leaves as large as those of the banana. Inflorescence very large,
thick, and heavy, pendent, with broad, closely crowded, red bracts.
Heliconia pendula Wawra. A medium-sized plant with tomentose, pendent,
dark red inflorescence.
14 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS , VOL. 78
Musa paradisiaca L. Plantain. Platano. Planted at the laboratory and
Musa sapientum L. Banana. Planted at the laboratory and about the old
ZINGIBERACEAE. Ginger Family
Costus sanguineus Donn. Smith. The species of Cosfiis are common in the
forests. They are tall plants with simple leafy stems, the stems formed by
the tightly rolled leaf petioles. In this species the flower spikes are fusiform,
with closely appressed, unappendaged, red bracts.
Costus spicatus (Jacq.) Swartz. Spikes cylindric or subglobose, the bracts
not appendaged, in age loose and spreading.
Costus villosissimus Jacq. Canagria, Cana de micO'. Plant very villous;
bracts with leafy, green or red appendages.
Dimerocostus uniflorus (Poepp.) Schum. A tall plant, usually 3 to 4 meters
high, resembling the Costus species ; usually growing in water. Flowers white,
7 to 8 cm. long, opening one at a time on each plant.
Renealmia occidentalis (Swartz) Sweet. Stems leafy, in clumps, i to 2.5
meters high ; inflorescences short, arising from the ground at tlie base of the
plant; berries red or dark blue, with orange pulp.
Renealmia strobilifera Poepp. & Endl. Stems leafy, 1.5 to 3 meters high ;
inflorescence conelike, bright orange.
MARANTACEAE. Arrowroot Family
Calathea insignis Peters. The Calatheas, common in wet forest and swampy
places, are coarse herbs with broad leaves like those of cannas, the flowers in
dense spikes. In this species the spikes are strongly compressed, the bracts
thin and parchment-like.
Calathea lutea (Aubl.) Meyer. Hoja blanca. Leaves whitish beneath;
bracts distichous but not strongl}- compressed, thick and leathery.
Calathea macrosepala Schum. Bij.ao. Spikes small and headlike, very dense,
Ischnosiphon leucophaeus (Poepp. & Endl.) Koern. Leaves white beneath;
Flowers in very slender, terete spikes.
Myrosma panamesis Standi. A stemless plant with broad leaves about a
foot long, the flowers in simple spikes.
Pleiostachya pruinosa (Regel) Schum. Easily recognized by the broad
leaves, which are dark red or purple beneath. Common in forest.
BURMANNIACEAE. Burmannia Family
Ophiomeris panamensis Standi. Known only from Barro Colorado, where it
was collected by Prof. C. W. Dodge. A small delicate whitish saprophyte, the
slender stem bearing a single lopsided flower, three of whose lobes end in long
ORCHIDACEAE. Orchid Family
The identifications have been made chiefly by Mr. Oakes Ames.
Aspasia principissa Reichenb. f. Epiphytic.
NO. 8 FLORA OF P.ARRn COLORADO ISLAND STANDLLY I 5
Bulbophyllum pachyrrachis (A. Rich.) Griseb. An epiphytic orchid witli
very small tlowcrs in pendent spikes which have a thick fleshy rachis.
Catasetum viridiflavum Hook. A showy epiphytic species, the green and
yellow ilowcrs resembling those of the northern lady's-slippcrs.
Epidendrum anceps Jacq. Epiphytic.
Epidendrum difforme Jacq. Epiphytic.
Epidendrum Rousseauae Schlechter. Epiphytic.
Epidendrum stenopetalum Hook. An epiphyte.
Maxillaria Macleei Batem. Epiphytic.
Oncidium ampliatum Lindl. Butterfly orchid. A handsome plant with large,
yellow and brown flowers which suggest butterflies.
Ornithocephalus bicornis Lindl. Epiphytic ; easily recognized by its equitant
leaves, suggesting those of iris. Flowers very small, resembling in form a
bird's head, hence the generic name.
Peristeria elata Hook. Dove orchid or Holy Qhost flower. Espiritu
Santo. A tall terrestrial species, famed for its handsome white flowers, whose
central organs suggest by their form a dove with outspread wings.
Pleurothallis Brighamii Wats. Epiphytic.
Pleurothallis marginata Lindl. Both these species are very small plants with
Sobralia panamensis Schlecliter. A terrestrial plant with tall leafy stems and
handsome large purple flowers, which last only part of a single day, closing
Vanilla pompona Schiede. Vanilla. Vainilla. A large vine, common
nearly everywhere in this part of Panama.
PIPERACEAE. Pepper Family
Peperomia caudulilimba longependula C. DC. All the species of Pepcroinia
occurring on the island are small succulent epiphytic herbs.
Peperomia conjungens Trel. Type from Barro Colorado.
Peperomia gatunensis C. DC.
Peperomia rotundifolia (L.) H. B. K. Poleo. Leaves rounded, very thick and
Piper acutissimum Trel. Cordoncillo. All the species of Piper growing
here are terrestrial shrubs. They are abundant in wet forest, and often grow
in open places. The names given to the species are " cordoncillo," " gusanillo,"
and "hinojo." The West Indians use the name " cowfoot."
Piper auritum H. B. K. Santa Maria de anis. A large coarse suffrutescent
plant, easily recognized by its very broad, deeply cordate leaves, and by the
characteristic odor of the crushed leaves, suggestive of sarsaparilla.
Piper cordulatum C. DC.
Piper culebranum C. DC.
Piper imperiale (Miquel) C. DC. A plant with very large leaves, the
petioles with numerous fleshy wartlike protuberances.
Piper laxispicum Trel. Type from Barro Colorado.
Piper paulownifolium C. DC.
Piper pseudo-cativalense Trel.
Piper pseudo-garagaranum Trel. Type from Barro Colorado.
Piper pseudo-variabile Trel.
l6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78
Piper pubistipulum estylosum Trel. Type from Barro Colorado.
Piper san-joseanum C. DC. Hinojo.
Piper smilacifolium C. DC.
Piper subnudispicum Trel.
Piper viridicaule Trel. Type from Barro Colorado.
Pothomorphe peltata (L.) Miq. Santa Maria. A stiff nitescent plant with
rounded-cordate leaves, the spikes in umhels.
ULMACEAE. Elm Family
Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) .Sarg. Shrub or small tree, the branches usually
pendent or clambering, armed with recurved spines.
Trema micrantha (L.) IMumc. Small tree with narrow gray leaves and
very small, red fruits.
MORACEAE. Mulberry Family
Artocarpus communis Forst. Breadfruit. Arbol de pan, Fruta de pan.
Planted at the laboratory.
Castilla panamensis Cook. Rubber tree. Caucho, Hule, Ule. A common
forest tree, the only species of the immediate region.
Cecropia sp. Guarumo. Three species of Cecropia are known from the
Canal Zone, and all may occur on Barro Colorado. No specimens suitable for
identification have been ' collected on the island. The species are small trees
with prop-roots, and very large, deeply palmate-lobed leaves which are white-
tomentose beneath. The hollow liranches are inhabited by ants.
Coussapoa panamensis Pittier. A tree, usually epiphytic, at least at first,
with large ovate leaves white-tomentose beneath.
Ficus costaricensis (Liebm.) Miquel.? Sterile specimens only, and the
determination therefore somewhat doubtful. In Panama the wild figs are
usually called " matapalo," " higo," or " higuero." They are large trees, often
strangling or epiphytic, and frequently with large buttresses.
Ficus crassiuscula Warb.
Ficus glabrata 11. B..K. Migueron. A common tree, with very large fruits.
Ficus Hemsleyana Standi.
Ficus Tonduzii Standi. Common ; leaves very broad, with few coarse nerves.
Helicostylis latifolia Pittier. Berba, Ciioyb.x, Querendo. Large tree with
oblong to obovate, entire leaves.
Inophloeum armatum (Miquel) Pittier. Namagua, Maragua, Cocua. Large
tree with narrow rough leaves. From the bark of this tree the Panama Indians
formerly made a coarse cloth which they used for hammocks, blankets,
women's clothes, and sails for boats. The cloth is still made in some parts of
Olmedia aspera Ruiz & Pav. Shrub or small tree with oblong long-cuspidate
rough leaves. Common.
Sorocea afifinis Hemsl. Shrub or small tree, with small red fruits in racemes.
Trophis racemosa (L.) Urban. Tree of medium or large size.
URTICACEAE. Nettle Family
Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Swartz. .\n Iierb in water about the edge of
XO. 8 FI-ORA OF r.ARRn COI.nRAlM) ISI.ANIO STANDLKY 1 7
Myriocarpa yzabalensis (Ddiin. Smith) Killip. LarRc slirul), the minute
wliitisli tlowcrs in numerous pendent, very slender spikes sometimes 60 cm. long.
Urera baccifera (L.) Gaud. Ortiga. Shrub or small tree, armed with spine-
like hairs that sting the flesh painfully.
Urera data (Swartz) Griseb. A tree 6 to 9 meters high, in this regior.
known only from l?arro Colorado.
PROTEACEAE. Protea Family
Roupala darienensis Pitticr. Small tree with a skunklike odor;, leaves
partly pinnate and partly simple.
OLACACEAE. Olax Family
Heisteria costaricensis Donn. Smith. The species of Hcisteria are shrubs with
alternate entire leaves, and are easily recognized by the saucer-shaped calyx
which persists with the fruit and is colored bright red.
Heisteria macrophylla Oerst. Ajicillo.
ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Birthwort Family
Aristolochia sylvicola Standi. Small slender woody vine.
POLYGONACEAE. Buckwheat Family
Coccoloba actiminata H. B. K. Shrub.
Coccoloba leptostachya Benth. Small tree.
Coccoloba nematostachya (Griseb.) Lindau. Hueso. Small tree.
Triplaris americana L. Guayabo hormiguero, Palo santo. Large tree with
dense racemes of purple-red flowers. The flowers appear about the first of
February and are very showy, lasting for several weeks. The hollow branches
are infested wnth savage ants, usually a species of Pscitdnmyrma.
AMARANTHACEAE. Amaranth Family
Alternanthera ficoidea (L.) R. Br. A small weedy herb.
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br.
Celosia argentea L. Rare ; a few plants found, probably escaped from culti-
vation. The cristate form of this species, C. cristafa L., is the cultivated cocks-
comb (" abanico ").
Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume. Cadillo. Small herb, introduced from the
Iresine celosia L. A common herbaceous weed.
NYCTAGINACEAE. Four-o'clock Family
Neea Pittieri Standi. Shrub or small tree.
Pisonia aculeata L. Large shrub or small tree, with long, often clambering
branches, armed with hooked spines; fruit small, club-shaped, covered on the
angles with small sticky glands.
l8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78
PHYTOLACCACEAE. Pokeberry Family
Petiveria alliacea L. Anamu. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, the crushed
leaves with the odor of garlic; flowers appressed to the rachis of the spike;
fruit bearing 4 small hooked bristles.
PORTULACACEAE. Purslane Family
Portulaca oleracea L. Purslane. Verdolaga. A rare weed.
NYMPHAEACEAE. Waterlily Family
Castalia ampla Salisb. Waterlily. Called " duckweed " by the West Indians.
In quiet water. A plant with handsome white flowers.
MENISPERMACEAE. Moonseed Family
Cissampelos pareira L. A slender vine with rounded hairy leaves, common
almost throughout Central America.
Cissampelos tropaeolifolia DC.
Hyperbaena panamensis Standi. Woody vine with ovate to oblong, 3-nerved
Sciadotenia sp. A woody vine, perhaps of this genus, grows on the island,
but only sterile specimens have been collected, hence its identification is un-
certain. The broad leaves are closely white-tomentose beneath.
ANNONACEAE. Custard-apple Family
Annona acuminata Safford. Camaron. Shrub or small tree, the leaves
glabrous or nearly so, narrow ; fruit small, tuberculate, opening at maturity.
Annona Hayesii Safford. Shrub or small tree ; fruit smooth, subglobose,
about 5 cm. long.
Annona Spraguei Safford. Chirimoya, Negrito. Tree; leaves densely pubes-
cent beneath ; fruit small, covered with clawlike tubercles.
Desmopsis panamensis (Robinson) Safford. Shrub or small tree; fruit a
cluster of stalked pubescent berries.
Guatteria amplifolia Triana & Planch. Shrub or small tree with large
oblong leaves ; fruit a cluster of small oval berries.
Xylopia macrantha Triana & Planch. CorobA, Rayado. Small tree.
MYRISTICACEAE. Nutmeg Family
Virola panamensis (Hemsl.) Warb. Bogamani, Malagueta de Montana.
Large tree with entire oblong leaves, stellate-tomentose beneath. Common.
MONIMIACEAE. Monimia Family
Siparuna pauciflora (Beurl.) A. DC. Large shrul), strong-scented, with
broad pubescent leaves.
NO. 8 FI.ORA OF n.\RRO COLOR ADO ISLAND— STANDLF.Y IQ
LAURACEAE. Laurel Family
Ocotea cernua (Nees) Mez. Sigua. A frequent tree.
Persea americana Mill. Avocado, Alligator peau. Aguacate. Planted at
CAPPARIDACEAE. Caper Family
Capparis baducca L. Shrub.
ROSACEAE. Rose Family
Rosa sp. One of the common roses, planted at the laboratory.
AMYGDALACEAE. Almond Family
Licania hypoleuca Renth. Tree; leaves small, entire, white-tomentose beneath.
CONNARACEAE. Connarus Family
Cnestidium rufescens Plancli. Large woody vine with pinnate leaves ; leaflets
densely pubescent beneath.
Connarus panamensis Griseb. Woody vine ; leaflets 3, glabrous or nearly so.
Rourea glabra II. B. K. Large woody vine; leaflets glabrate.
MIMOSACEAE. Mimosa Family
Acacia Hayesii Benth. ? Una de gato.
Acacia melanoceras Beurl., one of the ant-inhabited bullhorn acacias, may
occur here, but the writer has not seen it on the island.
Entada scandens (L.) Benth. Javilla. Large woody vine with enormous
pods several inches broad.
Inga edulis Mart. Guavo. Like the other species, a good-sized tree.
Inga Goldmanii Pittier. Guavo de mono
Inga marginata Willd.
Inga panamensis Seem. Guavo.
Mimosa pudica L. Sensitive-plant. Dormidera, Cierrate, Cierra tus puer-
TAs. Called by the West Indians " shameweed " and " shame-face.'' Small herb
with round heads of pink flowers.
CAESALPINIACEAE. Senna Family
Bauhinia excisa (Griseb.) Hemsl. Bejuco de mono. Large woody vine
with bilobate leaves. The stems are compressed and ribbon-like, and perforated
with large holes.
Bauhinia sp. Only sterile material collected. Leaflets 2, very silky beneath,
Cassia bacillaris L. Shrub with showy yellow flowers.
Peltogyne purpurea Pittier. Nazareno, Morado. A large tree, reported to
Prioria copaifera Griseb. Cativo, Amans.^ mujer. A very common, large
tree ; leaves with 4 leaflets. The short broad flat fruits are much sought by
Tounatea simplex (Swartz) Taub. Shrub or small tree.
20 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78
FABACEAE. Bean Family
Aeschynomene americana L. Pega-pega. Herb with buff flowers.
Aeschynomene sensitiva Swartz.
Andira inermis H. B. K. Cabbage-bark. Cocu. Large tree; leaflets 7 to 13,
opposite, oblong, glabrous ; flowers purple, in panicles. The wood is of good
quality and is nuich used locally.
Cajanus bicolor DC. Pigeon-pea. Guandu, Frijol de palo. Shrub; much
cultivated in this region for its edible seeds, and also naturalized.
Clitoria arborescens Ait. An erect or scandent shrub ; one of the most beau-
tiful plants of Central America, liearing clusters of shell-pink flowers about
7 cm. long.
Coumarouna panamensis Pittier. Almendro. Common. A large tree; leaves
pinnate, the leaflets 5 to 8 pairs, large, o!)long, the costa close to the margin ;
flowers pink, in panicles. The fresh fruit is filled with an oily fragrant liquid
that crystallizes when dry.
Dioclea reflexa Hook. ? Large woody vine. •
Erythrina panamensis Standi. .Shrub or small tree with narrow, bright
red flowers and red seeds.
Machaerium marginatum Standi.
Machaeiium microphyllum (Meyer) Standi. Spiny woody vine with purple
Machaerium purpurascens Pittier.
Machaerium Seemanni Benth.
Meibomia adscendens (Swartz) Kuntze. A frequent weed.
Meibomia axillaris (Swartz) Kuntze. The pods are sometimes called
Meibomia cana (Gmel.) Blake. Pega-pega, Pegadera. Known among the
Jamaicans as " strong-back," and used by them in domestic medicine.
Meibomia purpurea (Mill.) Vail.
Meibomia scorpiurus (Swartz) Kuntze.
Mucuna urens (L.) DC. Chocho. Large vine: pods covered with stiff bristles
that penetrate the skin easily.
Phaseolus pedunculaiis H. B. K. Small herl)accous vine.
Phaseolus vulgaris L. IIeax. Frijol. Planted at the laboratory.
Platymiscium polystachyum Benth. QuiR.\. Large tree with racemes of small
yellow flowers. The wood is of good quality, being known in commerce as
Platypodium Maxonianum Pittier. Cariiera. Large tree; fruit i-seeded,
Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. Large tree with small thin winged fruits. The
sap turns red ujjon exposure to the air.
Khynchosia pyramidalis (Lam.) Urban. A herbaceous vine with red and
ERYTHROXYLACEAE. Coca Family
Erythroxylon amplum Benth. Shrul) with entire leaves.
Erythroxylon panamense Turcz.
NO. 8 FLORA Ol' r.AKKO (OI.OKADO ISLAND STANDLLV 21
RUTACEAE. Rue Family
Citrus auiantifolia (Cliristm.) Swindle. Limk. Limux. Naturalized in the
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbcck. Orange. Naranjo. Planted at the lal)oratory.
Zanthoxylum panamense P. Wilson. Arcabu, Acabu, Alcauu. Large tree;
trunk covered with larf;e pyramidal jirickles.
SIMAROUBACEAE. Simaruba Family
Quassia amara L. Qua,ssl\. Guavito amarco, Puksilde, Cruceta. Shrub
or small tree with pinnate leaves and showy red ilowers. The leaves and bark
arc as bitter as quinine.
BURSERACEAE. Torchwood Family
Protium asperum Standi. Carano. A large tree. From wounds in the trunk
there are distilled large quantities of a fragrant resin or balsam, which collects
upon the ground. Leaflets very rough.
Protium sessiliflorum (Rose) Standi. Axime. Large tree ; common; leaflets
Tetragastris panamensis (Engler) Kuntze? Large tree; common.
MALPIGHIACEAE. Malpighia Family
Hiraea faginifolia (DC.) Juss. Woody vine, the leaves densely silky beneath.
Stigmaphyllon Humboldtianum Juss. Woody vine with yellow flowers. The
broad leaves bear numerous stalked glands along the margins.
TRIGONIACEAE. Trigonia Family
Trigonia floribunda Oerst. Woody vine with entire leaves, densely wliite-
tomentose beneath ; flowers small and white.
POLYGALACEAE. Polygala Family
Securidaca diversifolia (L.) Blake. Large woody vine with small entire
leaves ; flowers pink, showy.
EUPHORBIACEAE. Spurge Family
Acalypha diversifolia Jacq. A common shrub.
Acalypha macrostachya Jacq. Shrub.
Acalypha villosa Jacq. Common shrub.
Alchornea costaiicensis Pax & Hofi'm. Small tree with ovate crenate leaves ;
slaminate flowers in long slender drooping spikes.
Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume. A shrub with colored leaves; one of the
tropical " crotons," planted at the laboratory.
Croton Billbergianus Muell. Arg. Large shrub or small tree growing
in the wet forest.
Dalechampia panamensis Pax & HofTm. Vine witli 3-parted leaves ; inflores-
cense subtended by 2 green bracts ; calyx furnished with stiiT hairs which
penetrate the skin easily.
Euphorbia hirta L. Hierba de tollo. Called " milkweed " by the West
Indians. A small annual herb.
SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78
Euphorbia hypericifolia L. Hierba de pollo. A small glabrous annual.
Hura crepitans L. Sandbox. Javillo. A giant forest tree, the trunk covered
with small sharp spines. The milky sap causes blisters upon the skin.
Hieronyma alchorneoides Allem. Pantano. Large tree with broad entire
leaves bearing minute stellate scales.
Mabea occidentalis Benth. Shrub or small tree with oblong leaves ; flowers in
raceme-like terminal panicles.
Manihot esculenta Crantz. Cass.'WA. Yuca. Much cultivated in Panama for
its edible roots. Planted at the laboratory.
Phyllanthus conami Swartz. Shrub or small tree with siuall distichous ovate
Phyllanthus niruri L. Called by the West Indians "seed on the leaf." A
small annual herb.
Phyllanthus nobilis (L. f.) Muell. Arg. Shrub or small tree with oblong-
ANACARDIACEAE. Cashew Family.
Anacardium excelsum (Bert. & Balb.) Skeels. Espave. A common large
tree with entire leaves. The bark is used in some parts of Panama as a
Astronium graveolens Jacq. Zorro. A common tree with pinnate leaves
having serrate or entire leaflets.
Mangifera indica L. Mango. Naturalized and planted.
Spondias mombin L. Hogplum. Jobo. Tree with pinnate leaves and a
juicy yellow edible fruit.
HIPPOCRATEACEAE. Hippocratea Family
Hippocratea volubilis L. Large woody vine, on the highest trees. The
capsule is large, vertically compressed and nearly flat, and deeply 3-lobed.
Salacia praecelsa (Miers) Griseb. Garrotillo. Large woody vine with
SAPINDACEAE. Soapberry Family
Allophylus psilospermus Radlk. Shrub or small tree with 3-foliolate leaves
and winged fruit.
Cupania cinerea Poepp. Gorgojo, Gorgojero. Shrub or small tree with
pinnate leaves, whitish beneath.
Cupania fulvida Triana & Planch. Caxdelillo, Gorgo.io, Gorgojero. Shrub
or small tree, often simple, densely brown-hirsute. The leaves are pinnate, but
on young plants they are simple.
Cupania latifolia Kunth. Leaflets glabrous, rounded or retuse at apex.
Cupania Seemanni Triana & Planch. Leaflets glabrous, acuminate.
Paullinia alata Don. All the species of raiillinia are woody vines. They
are used in tropical America as fish poisons.
Paullinia bracteosa Radlk.
Paullinia glomerulosa Radlk.
Paullinia turbacensis H. B. K.
Serjania trachygona Radlk. Woody vine.
Talisia nervosa Radlk. Small tree with very large, pinnate leaves.
NO. 8 FLORA OF liARRO (OI.OKADO ISLAND STANDLKV 23
RHAMNACEAE. Buckthorn Family
Gouania lupuloides (I..) l'rl)an. Woodj- vine.
Gouania polygama (Jacq.) IVhan. Jaboncillo. Called " cliewstick "' in the
West Indies. The stems when chewed produce lather.
VITACEAE. Grape Family
Cissus salutaris H. R. K. Woody vine witii 3-foli(ilatc leaves and small red
Cissus sicyoides L. \'ine with simple leaves. The inflorescences of this
species arc fretjuently distorted hy a smut, Mycnsyrinx Cissi.
Vitis tiliaefolia Humb. & Bonpl. Grape. Uva, Bejuco de agua. The fruit
is small and very sour.
TILIACEAE. Basswood Family
Apeiba aspera Aubl. Tree with entire leaves. Fruit resembling a sea-urchin,
and covered with stiff spines.
Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. Peine de mico, Cortezo. Leaves finely dentate.
Belotia panamensis Pittier. Tree with very showy flowers, the sepals pink,
the petals violet ; fruit compressed, obcordate, 2-celled.
Heliocarpus popayanensis H. B. K. Majaguillo. Tree, the small flowers
panicled; fruits very small, compressed, the margin bearing a row of stiff
Luehea Seemannii Triana & Planch. Guacimo. A common, very large forest
tree ; leaves tomentose beneath ; fruit small, woody, obtusely 5-angled.
Triumfetta lappula L. Cadillo, Cepa de caballo. Shrub bearing small
globose spiny burs.
MALVACEAE. Mallow Family
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Chinese hibiscus. Papo, Tapo. Planted at the
Pavonia dasypetala Turcz. Shrub with showy pink flowers 4 to 6 cm. long ;
leaves broad and velvety.
Pavonia rosea Schlecht. Herbaceous or suffrutescent, with small pink flowers ;
fruit armed with barbed spines.
Sida rhombifolia L. Escobilla. One of the most common weedy plants of
BOMBACACEAE. Cotton-tree Family
Bombacopsis Fendleri (Seem.) Pittier. Cedro espinoso. Large tree with
spiny trunk, flowering in winter when leafless.
Bombacopsis sessilis (Benth.) Pittier. Ceibo. Trunk unarmed.
Cavanillesia platanifolia H. B. K. Cuipo, Bongo, Quipo. Large tree with
smooth swollen trunk; leaves deciduous, 5 or 7-lobed ; flowers small, with red
petals. The trees are conspicuous when in flower, in late March and early
April. The wood is very soft and light.
Ochroma limonensis Rowlee. Balsa. Large or medium-sized tree, the cordate
leaves 3-angled or shallowly 3-lobed, pale beneath ; flowers large and whitish.
The balsa trees have one of the lightest woods known.
24 SMITHSONIAN ]\USCI::LLANK0US COLLECTIUNS \ OL. /S
STERCULIACEAE. Cacao Family
Buettneria aculeata Jacq. Espino hueco, Zarza, Rabo de iguana. Prickly
shrub, often scandent ; young leaves often blotched with silver.
Sterculia apetala (Jacq.) Karst. Panama. Large tree with 3 or 5-lobed
leaves, stellatc-tomentose beneath ; flowers without petals, th.e large calyx
5-lobed, reddish ; fruit of 5 carpels, the large brown seeds resembling chestnuts.
It is from the Indian name of this tree that the Republic of Panama derives
Theobi'Oma cacao L. Cacao. Planted and also naturalized in the forest.
Theobroma purpureum Pittier. Cacao cimarron, Chocolatillo. Shrub or
small tree; leaves digitately compound, with 5 large leaflets; fruit small, covered
with stiff hairs which penetrate the skin readily.
DILLENIACEAE. Dillenia Family
Davilla rugosa Poir. Woody vine with rough, obovate, nearly entire leaves
and yellow flowers.
Dillenia indica L. Planted at the laboratory. A handsome tree with large
toothed obovate leaves, very large white flowers, and a huge globular green
Doliocarpus major Gmcl. Woody vine with glalirous but punctate leaves.
OCHNACEAE. Ochna Family
Ouratea Wrightii (Van Ticgh.) Riley. Shrub with narrow lustrous leaves;
flowers yellow, in terminal panicles ; fruits several, black, borne on a red disk.
HYPERICACEAE. St. Johnswort Family
Vismia ferruginea H. B. K. Sancre de pkrro. Shrub with ovate entire leaves,
brownish beneath. The sap turns red upon exposure to the air.
CLUSIACEAE. Clusia Family
Calophyllum longifolium Willd. Maria. Large tree with very handsome,
narrow, oblong leaves, 30 cm. long or larger ; sap yellowish.
Clusia rosea L. Copev. Tree; leaves thick, nearly as l)road as long; flowers
pink, waxy ; fruit a leathery fleshy capsule ; sap milky, sticky.
Rheedia madruno (H. B. K.) Planch. & Triana. Cerillo, Tome, Machari.
Tree with oblong to elliptic, acuminate leaves.
Symphonia globulifera L. f. Cerillo. Tree with small dblong-lanceolate
Tovomitopsis nicaraguensis (Oerst.) Triana & Planch. Shrub or small
tree ; flowers small, whitish.
VIOLACEAE. Violet Family
Hybanthus anomalus ( H. B. K.) Standi. Shrub with alternate leaves.
Rinorea squamata Blake. Molenillo. Shrub with opposite leaves.
Rinorea sylvatica (Seem.) Kuntze.
NO. 8 FLORA OF liARRO COLORADO ISLAND — STANDLRY 25
FLACOURTIACEAE. Flacourtia Family
Casearia arguta IT. B. K. Raspa-lengua. Shrub.
Casearia guianensis (Aubl.) Urban. Palo de la ckuz.
Casearia nitida (L.) Jacq. Raspa-lengua.
Casearia sylvestris Swartz. Shrub with entire leaves.
Hasseltia floribunda II. B. K. Raspa-lengua. Small tree with oblong to
elliptic, coarsely serrate, glabratc leaves, and small white flowers.
Oncoba laurina (Presl) Warb. Guavo cimaurun, Cahbonero. Small tree with
spiny globose fruit.
TURNERACEAE. Turnera Family
Turnera panamensis I'rban. Shrub with lance-ol)long leaves and yellow
PASSIFLORACEAE. Passionflower Family
Passiflora auriculata H. B. K. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 3-lobed or subentire.
Passiflora vitifolia H. B. K. Guate-guate. A very showy species, a woody
vine, with large, deep red flowers.
CARICACEAE. Papaya Family
Carica papaya L. Papaya. Planted at the laboratory; also wild or
BEGONIACEAE. Begonia Family
Begonia filipes Benth. A small and inconspicuous plant.
CACTACEAE. Cactus Family
Epiphyllum phyllanthus (L.) Haw. An epiphytic spineless plant with large
LYTHRACEAE. Loosestrife Family
Adenaria floribunda H. B. K. Fruta de pavo. Shrub with entire, opposite,
nearly sessile leaves.
LECYTHIDACEAE. Brazilnut Family
Grias Fendleri Seem. Tree with large sessile leaves, entire or nearly so.
Gustavia superba Berg. Memdrillo. Medium-sized tree with few branches ;
leaves 30 to 100 cm. long, serrate; flowers about 10 cm. broad, white; fruit
RHIZOPHORACEAE. Mangrove Family
Cassipourea elliptica Poir. Huesito, Limoncillo. Shrub or small tree with
glabrous entire opposite leaves.
COMBRETACEAE. Combretum Family
Terminalia Hayesii Pittier. Amarillo real. A common large tree ; leaves
nbovate, entire ; flowers minute, green, in long spikes.
26 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78
MYRTACEAE. Myrtle Family
Calycolpus Warscewiczianus Berg. Guayabillo. Slender shrub with pink or
Eugenia uniflora L. Surinam cherry. A South American shrub, planted at
Psidium guajava L. Guava. Guayaba. Frequent in open places.
MELASTOMACEAE. Meadowbeauty Family
Clidemia petiolata (Rich.) DC. Shrub.
Conostegia bracteata Triana. Shrub.
Conostegia speciosa Naud. Dos caras, Raspa-lengua, Fruta de pava.
Heterotrichum octonum (Bonpl.) DC. Shrub with 7 or 9-nerved, broadly
Miconia argentea (Swartz) DC. Dos caras, Canillo, Papelillo. Common
shrub or small tree, with large broad leaves very white beneath.
Miconia Beurlingii Triana.
Miconia lacera (Humb. & Bonpl.) Naud. Common shrub.
Miconia nervosa (Smith) Triana.
Miconia impetiolaris (Swartz) Don. Dos caras, Oreja de mula. Leaves
large, brownish beneath, sessile.
Miconia lonchophylla Naud.
Mouriria parvifolia Benth. Arracheche. Shrub, glabrous throughout, with
sessile entire ovate leaves and small axillary flowers.
Ossaea diversifolia (Naud.) Cogn. Fruta de pava. Shrub with pink or
reddish flowers and small, black or purple fruit.
Ossaea micrantha (Swartz) Macfad.
Tibouchina longifolia (Vahl) Benth. Herb with small white flowers.
ONAGRACEAE. Evening-primrose Family
Jussiaea suffruticosa L. A common herb with yellow flowers, growing in
ARALIACEAE. Ginseng Family
Dendropanax arboreum (L.) Decaisne & Planch. Vaquero. Small tree with
entire or 3-lobed leaves.
Didymopanax Morototoni (Aubl.) Decaisne & Planch. Mangabe, Gar-
GORAN, Pava. Large tree ; leaves digitately compound, with 7 to 10 long-stalked
entire acuminate leaflets, pale-tomentose beneath. Common.
Nothopanax Guilfoylei (Cogn. & Marche) Merrill. Planted at the laboratory.
Shrub with pinnate white-margined leaves.
MYRSINACEAE. Myrsine Family
Ardisia compressa 11. B. K. Shrub with white or pinkish flowers and black
Ardisia myriodonta Standi. Described from Barro Colorado. A small shrub.
Stylogyne laevis (Oerst.) Mez. Glal)rous shrub with thick entire leaves;
flowers white or pinkish, the branches of the i>anicle bright red.
Stylogyne ramiflora (Oerst.) Mez.
NO. 8 FLORA OF BARRO COLORADO ISLAND STANDLF.Y 2/
SAPOTACEAE. Sapodilla Family
Chrysophyllum cainito L. Star-api'Lk. Caimito. Large tree; leaves covered
beneath with silky golden-brown hairs ; fruit edible. Common forest tree.
LOGANIACEAE. Logania Family
Spigelia Humboldtiana Cham. & Schlccht. A small Iierb.
Strychnos darienensis Seemt Woody vine.
Strychnos panamensis Seem. Canjura, Fruta de murcielago. Woody vine
with nearly glabrous, entire leaves ; fruit large, globose, with hard shell.
Strychnos toxifera Benth. A very hairy vine. This species furnishes curare
poison, used by the Indians of Panama and elsewhere for poisoning their arrows.
GENTIANACEAE. Gentian Family
Leiphaimos simplex (Griseb.) Standi. A small saprophyte, without any
green coloration, the slender stem bearing a single pale blue flower ; common
in dark wet forest.
APOCYNACEAE. Dogbane Family
Odontadenia speciosa Benth. Negrillo. Woody vine with large yellow
Prestonia obovata Standi. Woody vine with glabrous obovate leaves.
Tabernaemontana grandiflora Jacq. Huevo de gato, Lechuga, Venenillo.
Glabrous shrub with yellow flowers about 5 cm. long.
Thevetia nitida (H. B. K.) A. DC. Cojon de gato, Lavaperro, Huevo de
tigre. Shrub or small tree with thick obovate leaves, yellow flowers, and
bright red fruit.
ASCLEPIADACEAE. Milkweed Family
Asclepias curassavica L. Nino muerto, Pasorin. Herb with red and orange
flowers. The only species of Asclepias found in the region.
Vincetoxicum pinguifolium Standi. A herbaceous vine, known only from
CONVOLVULACEAE. Morning-glory Family
Maripa panamensis Hemsl. Large glabrous w^oody vine with oblong to
Rivea campanulata (L.) House. Batatilla. Large vine with broadly cor-
date leaves ; flowers pink, 7 to 8 cm. long.
The genus Ipomoca must occur on the island, but I have no record of it.
BORAGINACEAE. Borage Family
Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Cham. Laurel. Tree with stellate-pubes-
cent leaves and small but showy, white flowers. The nodes are often swollen,
and inhabited by ants.
Tournefoitia obscura A. DC. Small woodv vine.
28 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78
VERBENACEAE. Verbena Family
Petrea volubilis Jacq. Viuda, Flor de mayo, Flor de la cruz. Large woody
vine with very showy racemes of purple-blue flowers.
MENTHACEAE. Mint Family
Coleus Blumei Benth. Colei's. Pompolluda, Chontadura. Called by the
West Indians " Jacob's-coat." Planted at the laboratory.
Hyptis capitata Jacq. Suspiro de monte. A weedy herb.
Salvia occidentalis Swartz. A small weedy herb with minute blue flower.s
SOLANACEAE. Potato Family
Capsicum annuum L. Pepper. Chile, Aji. Planted at the laboratory.
Capsicum macrophyllum (H. B. K.) Standi. Pintamora de monte. Large
coarse herb with bright red, cherry-like fruit.
Cestrum panamense Standi. Small tree with i)ale green, tubular flowers.
Lycianthes Maxonii Standi. Nearly glabrous, erect shrub with small violet
flowers. The typical form of the species is known only from Barro Colorado,
but a variety occurs in the forests beyond Panama City.
Solanum allophyllum (Miers) Standi. Hierra de callinazo, Hierba ga-
LLOTA. Herb with entire or lobed leaves.
Solanum bicolor Willd. Unarmed shrub with long-stalked cymes of white
Solanum diversifolium Schlecht. Friega-plato, Huevo de gato. Called by
the Barbadians " susumba." Erect prickly shrub.
Solanum parcebarbatum Bitter. Nearly glabrous, unarmed shrub. For this
I have been given in Panama the name " sauco," but that name belongs properly'
to the genus Saiiibiicits.
Solanum scabrum Vahl. Friega-plato, Arana-gato. Large, very prickly,
Solanum sp. Only imperfect material is available ; probably an undescribed
SCROPHULARIACEAE. Figwort Family
Scoparia dulcis L. Escobilla amarga. Called "sweet broom" by the
West Indians. Herbaceous or suffrutescent weed, with very small, white flowers.
Stemodia parviflora Ait. Small herb witii blue flowers.
Torenia Crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schlecht. Small weedy herb with blue-purple
BIGNONIACEAE. Bignonia Family
Adenocalymna flos-ardeae Pittier. Woody vine, the leaflets with large
yellow glands on the lower surface.
Amphilophium paniculatum (L.) II. P>. K. Leaflets covered with minute
scales ; flc)wers pink and white.
Arrabidaea pachycalyx Sprague. Leaflets white-tomentose beneath ; flowers
purple, small but in large panicles and very showy.
Cydista aequinoctialis (L.) Miers. Reported by Dodge. Nearly glabrous
vine witli pale purple flowers 5 to 8 cm. long.
NO. 8 FI.OKA OK I'.ARRO (nl.OKADO ISLAND STANDI.KV 29
Jacaranda copaia Don. Palo de nun.\. Tree with Iwicc-pinnatc leaves and
large, bluisli, very showy flowers.
Macfadyena uncinata (Meyer) DC. luisily rccnonized by the sharp hooks
terminating the tendrils ; llowers pale yellow.
Paragonia pyramidata (Rich.) Bur. Woody vine; leaflets minntcly Icpidote
beneath ; flowers pink, 6 to 7.5 cm. long.
Petastoma patelliferum (.Sclilecht.) Miers. Reported by Dodge. Glabrate
vine with purple flowers about -i cm. long.
Phryganocydia corymbosa (\cnt.) Bur. Nearly glabrous vine with handsome,
Iiright pink flowers 6 to 9 cm. long.
Tabebuia guayacan (Seem.) Hemsl. Guayacan. Tree with digitatcly
compound leaves and large yellow flowers.
Tabebuia pentaphylla (L.) Hemsl. Roble, Roble de sabana. Tree with
digitatcly compound, minutely lepidote leaves; flowers varying from pale to
deep pink. When in full flower, this is one of the most beautiful of Central
GESNERIACEAE. Gesneria Family
Achimenes panamensis (Seem.) Hemsl. Small herb with white flowers.
Columnea purpurata Hanst. Rare. Coarse suffrutescent plant with large,
very hairy leaves, and bright red, axillary inflorescence.
Drymonia spectabilis (H. B. K.) Mart. Epiphytic shrub; corolla dull
Kohleria tubiflora (Cav.) Hanst. Herb with scarlet flowers.
Tussacia Friedrichsthaliana Hanst. Small herb with large orange flowers.
PINGUICULACEAE. Butterwort Family
Utricularia mixta Barnh. Small floating aquatic plant, in quiet water ; flowers
ACANTHACEAE. Acanthus Family
Aphelandra Sinclairiana Nees. Showy shrub with bright red flowers in
dense bracted spikes, the bracts orange-red.
Aphelandra tetragona (Vahl) Nees. Shrub with red flowers, the bracts
small and green.
Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urban. Common herbaceous weed with
small purple flowers.
Blechum panamense T.indau. Herb with purple flowers.
Chaetochlamys panamensis Lindau. Erect herb with showy purple flowers.
Mendoncia retusa Turrill. Vine; flowers white, with purple veins; fruit
a black plumlike drupe.
RUBIACEAE. Madder Family
Alibertia edulis (L. Rich.) A. Rich. Lagartillo, Trompito. Called "wild
guava" by the West Indians. Shrub with, sessile glabrous lance-oblong leaves;
flowers small, clustered, sessile; fruit globose, 2.5 cm. in diameter. Young
seedling plants, which are very common on the island, have the leaves hand-
somely striped or mottled with purple and pink.
30 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78
Bertiera guianensis Aubl. Sliruh with small, bright blue fruit.
Borreria laevis ' (Lam.) Grisel). Small weedy herb.
Borreria latifolia (Aubl.) Schum. Reported by Dodge. An herb with small
Borreria ocymoides (Burm.) DC. Small amiual herb.
Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brot.) Rich. Ipecac. Raicilla. A small glabrate
plant, about 30 cm. high; leaves oblong; flowers small, white, in a single terminal
head. Ipecac is obtained from the thickened roots.
Cephaelis tomentosa (Aubl.) Vahl. Shrub with very hairy leaves; flowers
in a dense head, subtended by showy, bright red bracts.
Faramea occidentalis (L.) Rich. Huesito. Shrub with white flowers. In its
general appearance and in its fruit this plant sugests coffee, to which it is
Geophila herbacea (L.) Schum. Creeping herb with heart-shaped leaves and
small white flowers; fruit juicy, red or purple-black.
Guettarda foliacea Standi. Shrul) with globose red fruit.
Hamelia nodosa Mart. & Gal. Shrub with orange-red flowers.
Hemidiodia ocimifolia (Willd.) Schum. A weedy herb.
Isertia Haenkeana DC. Canelito. Showy shrub with large leaves and
dense panicles of bright yellow and red, tubular flowers.
Ixora coccinea L. Buquet de novia. Shrub with red flowers, planted at
Oldenlandia corymbosa L. Small herb with linear leaves and white or pinkish
Palicourea guianensis Aubl. Shrub ; flowers yellow, in a terminal thyrse, its
branches red or orange.
Pentagonia macrophylla Benth. Hoja de murcielago. Shrub with very
large, obovate leaves.
Pentagonia pubescens Standi. Common shrub.
Posoqueria latifolia (Rudge) Roem. & Schult. Boca vieja, Borajo, Fruta
DE MONO. Large shrub or small tree with broad thick leaves ; flowers tubular,
very slender, 12 to 16 cm. long.
Psychotria brachiata Swartz. The species of this genus are common shrubs
of the forest.
Psychotria calophylla Standi. Reported by Dodge.
Psychotria chagrensis .Standi.
Psychotria cuspidata Bredem.
Psychotria emetica L. f. Raicilla macho, Ixaicilla. Small shrub, with
axillary white flowers and lilue fruit. The roots yield a kind of ipecac.
Psychotria granadensis Benth.
Psychotria grandis Swartz.
Psychotria horizontalis Swartz.
Psychotria involucrata Swartz.
Psychotria limonensis Krause.
Psychotria marginata Swartz.
Psychotria micrantha H. B. K.
Psychotria patens Swartz. Garricillo.
Psychotria Pittieri Standi. Fruit blue.
Psychotria racemosa (Aubl.) Willd. b'ruil s-cclled : it is -'-celled in the
NO. 8 IM.ORA Ol' llARRi) ( i )I.()K.\1>() ISLAND STANDI.F.V 3I
Randia armata (Swartz) DC. Rosktii.i.o. Sjiiiiy sliriili witli large vvliitc
Rudgea fimbriata (I'cnth.) Standi. Slinih with suhsi^'ssik' leaves.
Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. Woody vine anued with hooked spines;
dowers yellowish, fragrant, in dense globose heads.
CUCURBITACEAE. Gourd Family
Anguria Warscewiczii Hook. f. Cdahrous vine with 3-foliolate leaves;
tiowcrs small, with bright red petals.
Cayaponia Poeppigii Cogn. bruit small, globose, 6-sceded.
Cucurbita pepo L. Squ.vsh. Calabazo, Sapuvo. Planted at the laboratory.
Gurania Seemanniana Cogn.? Bejuco imcador. Large herbaceous vine with
Gurania suberosa Standi. Type from Barro Colorado. Large woody vine,
climbing on high trees ; stems covered with corky bark ; flowers small, red,
borne on the naked stems near the ground. The leaves have not been collected.
Luffa cylindrica (L.) Rocm. Spongkcjoird. Calap.azo. Vine with large
yellow flowers. The interior of the fruit resembles a sponge, and may be used
in the same manner.
Melothria guadalupensis (Spreng.) Cogn. Saxdillita. Slender vine with
small yellow flowers. The fruit resembles a small watermelon, and has the
odor of cucumber.
Posadaea sphaerocarpa Cogn. BrujitO'. Herbaceous vine with a globose
Sicydium tamnifolium (H. B. K.) Cogn. Leaves nearly entire, softly
pubescent ; flowers minute, in large panicles ; fruits small, black.
ASTERACEAE. Aster Family
Baccharis trinervis (Lam.) Pers. Shrub with dirty-white flowers.
Bidens pilosa L. Cadillo, Sirvulaca. Called " Spanish needles " by the
Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak. Leaves white-tomentose beneath, in a basal
rosette ; rays short, white to red-purple.
Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. Small weedy herb.
Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. Small weedy herb with pale purple or pink,
Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. Tabaquillo. Coarse herb with greenish
Erigeron bonariensis L. Tabaquillo. Weedy herb with linear leaves.
Erigeron spathulatus Vahl. Weedy herb with spatulate or obovate leaves.
Eupatorium macrophyllum L. Coarse herb with greenish white heads.
Eupatorium microstemon Cass. Small annual with purple heads.
Eupatorium odoratum L. Paleca, Hiei^ba de chiva. Called " Christmas-
bush " by the West Indians. Large herb or shrub with lavender flowers.
Eupatorium Sinclairii Bentb. Weedy herb with purplish flowers.
Mikania leiostachya Bentb. Herbaceous vine ; heads in spikes.
Mikania micrantha H. B. K. Herbaceous vine; heads small, fragrant, whitish,
32 SMITflSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 78
Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. Contragavilana. Coarse herb with yellow
Pluchea purpurascens (Swartz) DC. Viscid herb with purple heads; growing
in shallow water at edge of lake.
Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. Glabrous annual with discoid heads
of bronze flowers ; rare here.
Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss.) Rohr. Escobilla blanca, Chicoria.
Weedy herb with pale purple heads.
Rolandra fruticosa (L.) Kuntze. Coarse herb with i-flowered white heads;
leaves white-tomentose beneath.
Tridax procumbens L. Weedy procumbent annual herb with pale yellow
Vernonia canescens H. B. K. Hierba de San Jose. Heads pink or white.
Vemonia cinerea (L.) Less. Small weedy herb with purple heads; natural-
ized from the Old World.
Vernonia patens H. B. K. Lengua de vaca, Lengua de buey. Shrub with
Wulffia baccata (L. f.) Kuntze. Arching shrub witli rough leaves; heads
2 cm. broad, with small yellow rays.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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